Weather Definitions Ipsum

Word Lists: Weather Definitions

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Anemometer: an instrument that measures the speed or force of the wind. aneroid barometer: an instrument for measuring the atmospheric pressure. it registers the change in the shape of an evacuated metal cell to measure variations on the atmospheric pressure. the aneroid is a thin-walled metal capsule or cell, usually made of phosphor bronze or beryllium copper. the scales on the glass cover measure pressure in both inches and millibars. anvil: the upper portion of a cumulonimbus cloud that becomes flat and spread-out, sometimes for hundreds of miles downstream from the parent cloud. it may look smooth or fibrous, but in shape, it resembles a blacksmith's anvil. it indicates the mature or decaying stage of a thunderstorm. cooling degree day: a cooling degree day is given for each degree that the daily mean temperature departs above the baseline of 75 degrees fahrenheit. it is used to estimate the energy requirements and is an indication of fuel consumption for air conditioning or refrigeration. diffluence: a rate at which wind flow spreads apart along an axis oriented normal to the flow in question. the opposite of confluence. evaporation: the physical process by which a liquid, such as water is transformed into a gaseous state, such as water vapor. it is the opposite physical process of condensation. flanking line: a line of attached cumulus or towering cumulus clouds of descending height, appearing as stair steps (usually on the southwest side) of the most active part of a supercell. freezing precipitation: precipitation that is liquid, but freezes upon impact with a solid surface, such as the ground or other exposed surfaces. macroscale: the meteorological scale covering an area ranging from the size of a continent to the entire globe. national severe storms forecast center (nssfc): as of october 1995, the responsibilities of this center were divided into two branches, the storm prediction center and the aviation weather center. nowcast: a short-term weather forecast for expected conditions in the next few hours. partial obscuration: denotes that 1/8th or more of the sky, but not all of the sky, is hidden by any surface-based phenomena in the atmosphere, excluding precipitation. it often reduces horizontal visibility but not the vertical. it is reported as "x" in an observation and on the metar. polar front: a semi-continuous, semi-permanent boundary between polar air masses and tropical air masses. an integral part of an early meteorological theory known as the polar front theory. radar: acronym for radio detection and ranging. an electronic instrument used to detect distant objects and measure their range by how they scatter or reflect radio energy. precipitation and clouds are detected by measuring the strength of the electromagnetic signal reflected back. relative humidity: a type of humidity that considers the ratio of the actual vapor pressure of the air to the saturation vapor pressure. it is usually expressed in percentage. short wave: a progressive wave of smaller amplitude, wave length, and duration than a long wave. it moves in the same direction as the basic current in which it is embedded and may induce upward vertical motion ahead of it. they are more numerous than long waves and often disappear with height in the atmosphere. station elevation: the vertical distance above mean sea level that is the reference level for all current measurements of atmospheric pressure at that station. sunrise: the daily appearance of the sun on the eastern horizon as a result of the earth's rotation. in the united states, it is considered as that instant when the upper edge of the sun appears on the sea level horizon. in great britain, the center of the sun's disk is used instead. time of sunrise is calculated for mean sea level. tropic of capricorn: the most southern point on the earth where the sun is directly overhead, located at approximately 23.5 degrees south latitude. : the rising and sinking branches are climatologically anchored to specific geographical locations, but these locations are seasonally dependent. in winter the the rising branch is centered near the "maritime continent" of greater indonesia while in summer it is centered near southern india. the sinking branches are generally found in the eastern equatorial pacific in winter and summer. sub-branches of rising motion are generally tied to equatorial areas of south america and africa in summer. warm advection: the horizontal movement of warmer air into a location. wave length: the least distance between particles moving in the same phase of oscillation of a wave. in oceanography, it is the horizontal distance between the highest parts of two successive wave crests above the still water level, separated by a trough that is below the still water level, and it is measured in meters. wind shift: the term applied to a change in wind direction of 45 degrees or more, which takes place in less than 15 minutes. it may the result of a frontal passage, from katabatic winds, sea breezes, or thunderstorms, and in some instances, the change may be gradual or abrupt. year: the interval required for the earth to complete one revolution around the sun. a sidereal year, which is the time it take for the earth to make one absolute revolution around the sun, is 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, and 9.5 seconds. the calendar year begins at 12 o'clock midnight local time on the night of december 31st-january 1st. currently, the gregorian calendar of 365 days is used, with 366 days every four years, a leap year. the tropical year, also called the mean solar year, is dependent on the seasons. it is the interval between two consecutive returns of the sun to the vernal equinox. in 1900, that took 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds, and it is decreasing at the rate of 0.53 second per century..
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